Applications by Industry
As countries and consumers around the world strive to reduce their CO2 emissions the automotive and transportation sectors have experienced a significant amount of change in terms of consumer habits, technology changes and governmental regulations. All of these factors are shifting more focus to more efficient and powerful electrically powered vehicles.
Even though internal combustion engine (ICE) driven vehicles are projected remain the drive of choice for
the next 5-10 years there is an accelerating movement toward electrically enhanced or driven drivetrains, which offer fewer emissions and less maintenance. These include Mild Hybrid, Full Hybrid and Plug-In Electric vehicles.
Automotive components are subjected to high temperatures as well as wide operating temperature range, vibration, size and weight constraints, and must meet EMI standards. Size constraints also means a need for low loss materials at high operating frequency and saturation levels.
Micrometals 200C and Alloy powder core offerings are well suited for high temperature applications. Our 200C materials do not have thermal aging up to 200C, while our Alloy offerings do not experience thermal aging effects. Unlike ferrites, powdered iron and alloys have higher and much more stable saturation flux density that does not decrease at elevated temperatures. Typical Applications for inductive components include:
Flyback Transformer - Ignition Coils
DC Inductor - 12V to 48V DC-DC Battery Converter
DC Inductor - 12V-5V/1.2V DC-DC converters for lighting, vehicle sensing and safety systems and power management,
AC Inductor – DC AC Inverter for motor drive and regenerative braking, Output Filter
AC Inductor – AC-DC Onboard charger, Differential Mode input filter
PFC inductor – AC-DC Onboard charger
Typical Applications for inductive components within Internal Combustion and Mild Hybrid Engines include Ignition Coils, 12V to 48V converters, DC to DC converters for lighting, vehicle sensing and safety systems and power management.
One of the most unique aspects of Micrometals distributed gap powder cores is they have the versatility of being pressed into complex shapes if needed to optimize EMI shielding, space constraints or weight.
To contact our engineering group regarding Micrometals solutions for Automotive applications please use our website contact form or send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org
The traditional power converters used for photovoltaic (PV) applications use an inductor to achieve the
power conversion. Micrometals high performance Iron and Alloy Powder Cores are widely specified for
DC-DC voltage converters in PV systems because of their smaller size, better efficiency and superior
Solar panels utilizing photovoltaic (PV) cells produce DC (36V~>50V DC) power, while wind powered generator produces variable frequency AC power, AC power is first rectified and filtered to produce DC.
This DC power may be boosted to supply a DC rail for battery charging and downstream DC-DC converters to supply auxiliary DC power. An DC-AC inverter then produces 120V-240V/60Hz AC grid power, for local use or to be injected into the power grid. Inductors are used in the DC-DC boost converter circuit as well as in the output filters of the inverter circuit and any downstream DC-DC converters.
Micrometals high performance Iron and Alloy Powder Cores are widely specified for DC-DC converters in PV systems because of their smaller size, better efficiency and superior magnetic properties.
Micrometals also has extensive experience in designing custom core shapes and custom magnetic materials for PV applications where efficiency, thermal management and size are critical performance factors. This includes output filter inductors and DC-DC converter Inductors.
Typical Applications for inductive components for Green Energy include power factor correction, inverter output filtering and DC-DC converters for Wind Power. Solar Power application of inductive components include Inverter Output Filtering and DC/DC Converters.
Typical applications with inductive components include:
- DC Inductor – DC-DC Boost Converters
- AC inductor – DC-AC Grid Tie Inverter, Output Filter
- DC Inductor - DC-DC Converters Auxiliary DC
To contact our engineering group regarding Micrometals solutions for Green Energy applications please use our website contact form or send an e-mail to email@example.com
One of the most prevalent uses for inductor cores is as an energy storage component in switch-mode power supplies, like those that power PC’s or network computer systems and servers. In non-isolated switch-mode power supplies, a single inductor is used in place of transformer and energy storage component.
Micrometals Iron Powder and Alloy Powder Cores have become a standard in the power supply industry for their exceptional reliability, inductive tolerances and performance. Our cores are called out specifically in thousands of reference designs in applications such as AC Input Filters, PFC boost inductors and
To contact our engineering group regarding Micrometals solutions for IT Power applications please use our website contact form or send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org
The lighting industry has experienced some rather large shifts in the past 10 years. For a century the incandescent bulb was the standard for lighting but as the manufacturing capabilities for fluorescent bulbs improved the use of incandescent bulbs waned, but was still prevalent. But today both of those lighting methods have been dramatically overtaken by the prevalence of Light Emitting Diodes (LED). Today, LED’s are available in a wide variety of standard shapes, color levels, and intensities. LED’s provide a more energy efficient and reliable light source which is actually more of a system than just the bulb it had replaced. That system includes the actual light emitting diode, the package, and a driver circuit that includes an inductor for energy storage and power conversion.
Micrometals Powder Cores play a critical role in the efficient conversion of this electrical power to light. OEM lighting manufacturers trust Micrometals cores extensively to deliver noise-free operation, especially in LED dimmer switch applications, dimmer circuits, AC Input filters, PFC and DC-DC converters.
Even traditional florescent lighting systems, like those prevalent in offices and commercial building around the world, use inductors for voltage scaling. This includes inductors for AC Input Filters, Resonant Converters and Flyback Inductors.
To contact our engineering group regarding Micrometals solutions for Lighting applications please use our website contact form or send an e-mail to email@example.com
Motors are widely utilized in household, commercial and industrial applications from moving gas and liquids, as in fans and pumps, to powering hand tools and heavy equipment. Automotive industry is also increasingly using traction motors for powering wheels. In many cases, an adjustable speed is required to accommodate changing needs. This is accomplished with a motor controller / motor drive in which a DC-AC converter chops up a DC input signal into discrete steps to create a custom AC waveform, with the desired frequency.
The resulting AC waveform produced by the switching action of the converter consists of sharp voltage rise and fall, which creates higher level harmonics that put a strain on the motor winding and produce unwanted EMI. An output filter with a smoothing inductor is used to mitigate this.
Common inputs for motors may be AC from 60Hz power grid or DC from solar power, fuel cells or battery pack. AC input would require conversion to DC before the DC-AC converter stage for speed control, as well as input filtering and power factor correction, with corresponding magnetics.
The ideal smoothing inductor can provide inductance at low cost, low core loss at motor frequency (<20Hz ~ 200Hz) and switching frequency (2kHz~<20kHz typical), with low leakage flux to minimize EMI and eddy current losses in the windings. Since operating frequency is within the audio range, a low magnetostriction material would introduce minimal additional noise.
Micrometals powder cores with their distribution gap structure are ideal in minimizing leakage by precluding the need for a large localized discrete gap and its accompanying fringing leakage flux. Micrometals also produce several cost effective materials, such as Sendust, with low to near zero magnetostriction. The higher saturation of powder cores (>8 to >10 kilogauss) compared to ferrites allow greater size reduction.
Typical Applications with Inductive components:
- AC Inductor – Differential-Mode Input Filter
- Power Factor Correction Inductor
- AC Inductor – DC-AC Inverter, Variable Speed Drive, Output Filter
To contact our engineering group regarding Micrometals solutions for Motor Drive applications please use our website contact form or send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org
Public transportation such as commuter and rapid transit trains, trams, and busses may derive primary power from a high voltage AC (up to 25kV/60Hz) or DC (600-1500VDC) power line in the form of an overhead line or a third rail. High Voltage AC line power is first stepped down and rectified to produce DC. Power from a high voltage DC link is then converted to 3-phase AC power for powering traction motors and auxiliary AC power for powering equipment such as air-conditioning compressors or fans. Further rectification and DC-DC conversion or power factor correction provide power for DC loads such as for battery charging, lighting and instrumentation. Electrically powered public transportation affords zero-emission operation particularly advantageous when traversing long tunnels or within busy city centers. Battery power may be used for traction within select lines or city routes to avoid overhead lines.
Typical applications with Inductor components include:
- AC Inductor – DC-AC Inverter Traction Motor, Output Filter
- AC Inductor – DC-AC Inverter Auxiliary AC, Output Filter
- Power Factor Correction Inductor – AC-DC Converter, Battery Charging
- DC Inductor – DC-DC Converter
DC-AC Inverter, Tractor Motor, Output Filter Inductor
AC Inductor with ripple (f1=60Hz, f2=4kHz, Irms?L?Iripple?)
DC-AC Inverter, Auxiliary AC Power, Output Filter Inductor
Power Factor Boost Inductor
PFC Inductor (240V/480Vin/400VDCout)
DC-DC Converter, Power Inductor
DC Inductor (400VDC-
Applications within public transportation require high reliability that meets standards for vibration, wide operating temperature range, size/weight limits and noise limits,
Railway Applications. Rolling Stock. Electronic Equipment
Railway Applications. Power Converters installed on board rolling stock. Characteristics and test methods.
To contact our engineering group regarding Micrometals solutions for Public Transportation applications please use our website contact form or send an e-mail to email@example.com
In the event of a power outage, critical systems require reliable backup supplies to resume operation seamlessly. Uninterrupted power supply (UPS) kicks in to supply this need. UPS are used in home offices, data centers, and in various medical, commercial and industrial environments.
During normal AC line condition, UPS takes available AC line power, convert to DC power to charge a high capacity battery. When input power is interrupted, battery engages an inverter to provide regulated AC power. UPS may also provide additional power conditioning in the event of transients or other voltage excursion, without resorting to battery power.
UPS needs to supply highly regulated power to match the needs of sensitive systems as soon as a fault is detected and run as efficiently as possible with low harmonics and near unity power factor. Inductors are used for filtering high frequency components on input power line as well as output from inverter.
Typical Applications with Inductor components includes:
- AC Inductor – Differential Mode Input Filter
- Power Factor Correction Inductor
- DC Inductor – DC-DC Converter
- AC Inductor – DC-AC Inverter Output Filter
AC (Inverter) Output Filter Inductor
AC Inductor with Ripple
AC Differential Mode Filter Inductor
Power Factor Correction Inductor
To contact our engineering group regarding Micrometals solutions for UPS applications please use our website contact form or send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org
Class D amplifiers typically use a low-pass LC type filter to attenuate the switching noise in the output waveform while passing the audio signal to the loudspeaker. So it is important that engineers design and specify the correct L-C filter values in addition to choosing the correct LC components for the amplifier to minimize losses and harmonic distortion.
Class D Amplifier uses pulse width modulation technique to sample audio signal level for amplification. Audio input is typically compared to a high frequency (>250kHz to MHz) sawtooth to produce a square wave signal with equal amplitude and duty that varies with signal level. The high frequency pulses can then be amplified with little power loss.
To recreate the audio signal, Class D amplifiers typically use a low-pass LC type filter to attenuate the high frequency switching noise in the output waveform while passing the audio signal to the loudspeaker.
The output filter inductor has to handle the level of audio frequency signal without saturation, while providing high impedance to high frequency noise with minimal core loss and distortion.
For decades, audio engineers have exclusively specified Micrometals iron powder cores for their filter designs, in particular our exclusive Mix-2, which, due to its low permeability, exhibit very linear frequency response, and exhibits low losses at high sampling frequency due to intrinsic properties as well as lower operating flux density as a result of higher winding turns.
Typical applications with inductive Components:
- AC Inductor with ripple – DC-AC Inverter Output Filter
When designing the filter inductor for class-D amplifiers engineers need to be certain that the DC current rating of the filter inductors be greater than or equal to the maximum current that it will experience and that the selected core material does not adversely affect the amplifier's harmonic distortion and incur very low hysteresis losses.
To contact our engineering group regarding Micrometals solutions for Audio applications please use our website contact form or send an e-mail to email@example.com
Typical Applications - High Pass, Low Pass, Band Pass Filters, Broadband Transformers
RF inductors are special inductors designed to be used in radio frequency (RF) and microwave applications, which are much higher in frequency than AC or DC applications from 10 MHz to several GHz. Since these applications generally need a high Q (Quality factor) value they are best served by low permeability cores and consistent response over a wide frequency range. RF inductors are typically used in mobile communications equipment, like 5G, as high pass filters, low pass filters and bandpass filters in radio communication devices and systems. RF inductors are also used as broadband transformers in powering such devices.
Magnetic cores are used in RF Communications in the form of RF filter inductors and broadband transformers.
RF filter inductors are used in various wireless and broadband communications systems operating at >10MHz to several GHz, including for television and radio broadcasting. The filter inductor is used in low-pass, high-pass, and band-limiting LC filter circuit for signal selection within frequency band of interest. The broadband transformers are used for voltage transformation and impedance matching.
For proper frequency selection, RF filter inductor are designed for high-Q, which can be achieved with low losses relative to the inductance at frequency of interest. In addition, RF filter inductor as well as broadband transformer should have stable inductance over a range of operating conditions, such as varying temperatures and frequencies.
Carbonyl Iron magnetic cores are well suited for RF applications due to low permeabilities (4µ-35µ), which are stable up to high MHz region. The fine powder structure also means carbonyl iron have exceptional low eddy current losses at these high frequencies. Also, low material permeability corresponds to low temperature coefficient of inductance and a linear change in inductance over temperature and frequency.
Inductive Component includes:
- AC Inductor – Low Pass, High Pass, Band Pass Filter
- AC Inductor – Broadband transformer
To contact our engineering group regarding Micrometals solutions for RF Communications applications please use our website contact form or send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org